You are not a member of this wiki.
Pages and Files
Decline or elimination of wild foods, particularly fisheries
Depletion of easily obtainable fossil fuels
Destruction of natural habitats
Erosion and salinization of soils
Global warming 2
Human population growth
Increasing resource consumption and waste production by humans
Loss of wild species
Scarcity and depletion of fresh water and drinking water
Toxic chemical pollution
Transfer of alien animal and plant species
Add "All Pages"
Erosion and salinization of soils
Abel, Nick and Michael Stocking. “A Rapid Method for Assessing Rates of Soil Erosion from Rangeland: An Example from Botswana” Journal of Range Management. 40.5 (1987) : 460-466. Allen Press and Society for Range Management. 14 March 2009. JSTOR BYU–Ihttp:
wf2dnvr13.webfeat.org/ [There are several ways that soil erosion is calculated in Africa. Measuring vegetation coverage and a procedure called SLEMSA are explained and demonstrated. These methods are economical and accurate. This is a good resource for information on Botswana and soil erosion estimation.]
Acton, D.F. et al. Soil Conservation.The Canadian Encylopedia. 14 March 2009.
[Information including effects of land use and management and soil conservation practices is found here. Soil conservation practices taking place in Canada is discussed according to region. This is a useful site for researching land use in Canada or land management.]
, Mahdi. “Soil erosion: An agricultural production challenge.”
Integrated Crop Management
. (July 2000).
. Web. 08 July 2011. [Author goes into great detail defining how, when, and why erosion happens. He explains the impact of erosion on farming and agricultural developments, and how it is more common in some areas than others. Article goes into more detail about the cropping system, and how to prevent erosion. ]
Arshad, Muhammad, and Zia-ul-Hassan Shah. "Land Degradation in Pakistan: A Serious Threat to Environments and Economic Sustainability."
July 2006. Web. 13 July 2011. <
>. [Provides information on cost of soil deterioration in South Asian countries. Presents several fact sheets and tables on Pakistan’s soil problems, including deforestation, soil erosion, soil salinity, and the depletion of soil fertility. Fairly dense, but contains a lot of interesting information.]
Atkins, William Arthur. Water Encyclopedia: Science and Issues. Erosion and Sedimentation. 2009. 10 Nov. 2009. <
> . [Atkins explains how erosion takes place. Erosion is frequently worked upon by natural forces such as water and wind. It explains that erosion is a process of wearing away rocks and soil material. Erosion breaks bigger pieces down into smaller, movable pieces.]
Blacktown City Council. Environment. Soil and Erosion Control. n.d. 10 Nov. 2009.
. [This web site explains how construction disturbs soil. In the Blacktown Council they address the issue of run-off dirt when it rains which effect the creeks, canals and end up in the rivers and lakes. It their clean up and prevention from erosion.]
Bjorneberg, D. (2008). Conservation practice effectiveness in the irrigated Upper Snake River/Rock Creek watershed. In Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 63(6), 487-495. Retrieved March 16, 2009, from Research Library database. (Document ID: 1613652121). [This article discusses irrigation practices and their effects on the soil and water of the Upper Snake River/Rock Creek areas of Idaho. It discusses the testing techniques and results of measurements conducted mainly from 2005-2006. It is a highly technical document not easily understood by those not familiar with soil and water conservation, but it has a lot of useful data.]
Bleyer, Bill, and Rivera, Laura. “Erosion: Beaches will need shoring up.”
31 Mar. 2010: 3.
Web. 6 April 2010.
[We are seeing more and more erosion problems on beaches. Scientists have concluded that the latest attack of erosion on beaches is the worst they have ever seen since the 1990’s. They call it “digging into the dunes.” Erosion is a serious issue that can cause our beaches to drift away into the ocean.]
Boardman, J, and Mortlock, D. Climate change and soil erosion in Britain. The geographical Jouirnal 159.2 (1993): 179-183. <
>. [J. Boardman and D.T. Favis-Mortlock explain that the recent increase in soil erosion in Britain is the result of continued intensification of farming and major land-use change from spring-planted to autumn planted cereals. In Many parts of the Midlands high rates of erosion are recorded under beets and potatoes.]
, J. and D.T. Favis-Mortlock. “Climate Change and Soil Erosion in Britain” The Geographical Journal. 159.2 (1993) : 179-183. Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers). 14 March 2009.JSTOR BYU–I libraryhttp:
wf2dnvr13.webfeat.org/ [Soil erosion in some parts of Britain results from weather and the changes in weather between seasons. Changes in seasonal crops also impact the thinning of soil. The information in this article is based on computer models and predictions of future climate conditions.]
Bruun, Per. (1995, Autumn). The Development of Downdrift Erosion. Journal of Coastal Research (pp. 1242-1257).
. [Downdrift erosion is a common feature of shores occurring where a headland, inlet, river, bay, canyon, reef or shoal blocks the natural longshore drift of materials, that is transport of sand and gravel by waves and currents. Sediment transport results in accumulations on updrift or receiving side and in the adjoining ocean. There is a corresponding depletion of materials on the downdrift side. The terminology "Littoral Drift Barrier" is accordingly developed. This paper is "an interim report" which reviews practical cases of leeside erosion and attempts to explain the development as a function of time.]
Burroughs, Edward R., Jr., & King, John G. . (1989). Reduction of Soil Erosion on Forest Roads. In United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved April 8, 2009, from
. [This in-depth article covers the Forest Service’s research of different treatments on forest road erosion reduction. Slope gradient, soil characteristics, and ground cover information was supplied to understand the effects of sediment travel. The article discusses that estimates can then be made of the effects of the erosion control treatments. Though this research was very specific in its scope of forest roads, others will find this information useful as they study other regions.]
Crosson, Pierre, et al. (1995). "Soil Erosion Estimates and Costs".
269 (5223), 461-465. [Soil erosion si a major threat to the sustainability of agriculture all around the world and especially in the United States. An average fo 17 tons per hectare per year of soil is eroded from U.S. farmland due to wind and water. The estimate of annual on-farm economic cost fo cropland erosion is $27 billion per year.]
Davis, Ellen F. (2004). The Bible and Our Topsoil. In Tikkun, 19(4), 67,76. Retrieved March 16, 2009, from ProQuest Religion database. (Document ID: 661304881). [In this article, Davis employs several biblical accounts of how ancient people depleted the top-soil and suffered the consequences. She claims that modern agriculture is doing the same and is heading for the same fate. This article is an interesting look at the history of erosion and the salinization of soils.]
Dobos, R. R, et al. “Developing a multi-factor crop production environmental risk index.” 2010. 17 Nov. 2010. <
>. [When producing crops there is always some soil degradation or soil damage that occurs. This paper reports on a method of accounting for the environmental risks and soil resources that occur due to soil degradation. Has colored coded models showing experiments.]
Dumanski, J., and C. Pieri (2000). "Land Quality Indicators: Research Plan".
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
, 81 (2), 93-102.
> [In order to make sure our environments are healthy, and to know what to do to implement better land management techniques, land quality indicators (LQIs) are being used. LQIs will help identify the effects of human actions on the land. By implementing these land quality indicators land management will be improved and hopefully lessen the impact of human actions upon the environment.]
Eswaran, H. et al. 09-2003. “Soil degradation in the United States : Extent, severity, & trends.” September 2003. Lavoisier Librairie. 14 March 2009.
[Information found in this source discusses soil degradation in the United States from a French view point. It also examines land use policy and management. It also includes information on soil contamination and soil compaction. This site would be useful for researching the United States from another’s view point.]
Favis-Mortock, D. (Feb. 12, 2008). Soil Erosion Site. Retrieved 6/23/2008, from
[This entire site is dedicated to soil erosion. It covers a significant amount of content with images and descriptions. The information is both general and specific providing a large overview of material. To access information easily, click About Soil erosion on the main page, to take you to the content of the site.]
Hernadedez, Garcia. Biological and biochemical indicators in derelict soils subject to erosion. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 1997: 29(2).
. [In a study of 21 derelict soils, in a semi-arid Spanish Mediterranean area, many of the degradation levels were determined. One-third of the organic matter in this area were low, and there was a negative correlation between many of the properties studied. Arlsulphatese and Beta-glucosidase were most affected by the soil erosion processes.]
Flanagan D. C., & Laflen J. M. (1997). The USDA Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP). In Accueil. Retrieved April 8, 2009, from
. [This article outlines the history of the WEEP models that predict soil erosion in the US. Its major components operate on a daily time step the estimate soil, vegetation, and surface residue after a rainfall. This information then predicts infiltration, runoff, erosion and sediment loss for each event and then long term estimates. Those interested in these models would be very interested in this article.]
Foltz, Randy B., & Copeland, Natalie S. (2009). Evaluating the efficacy of wood shreds for mitigating erosion. In Journal of Environmental Management, 90(2), 779. Retrieved March 16, 2009, from Research Library database. (Document ID: 1603623091). [This article summarizes the results of a case study preformed to study the effects of wood shreds in the reduction of mitigation erosion during rainfall. It states that wood is approximately as effective as grain straws in reducing run-off and soil-loss. The information in this study is very useful in giving reliable evidence for soil-conservationists and those researching soil-conservation techniques.]
Fusaro, J. and R. Moench. “Soil Erosion Control After Wildfires”
Colorado State University
>, July 2008. Web. 08 July 2011. [This article explains the serious implications of erosion after wildfires. The authors describe why there is so much erosion potential and the measures and precautions that they must take in order to control landslides and mass wasting. The precautions range from contour log terraces to water bars.]
Garcia-Ruiz, Jose M. “The Effects of Land Uses on Soil Erosion in Spain; A Review.”
81.1, (2010): 1-11.
Web. 10 Dec. 2011. [Soil erosion is important to the environments in the Mediterranean region. Erosion is related closely to the geographical factors and land-use. The development of land erosion can partially be explained by the “long history of human activity in Spain.” Examples of the human activity that has triggered erosion are provided.]
Gardner, L.R. et al. “Ecological Impact of Hurricane Hugo—Salinization of a Coastal Forest.”
Journal of Costal Research,
8, (1991): 301-317.
. Web. 10 Dec. 2011. [The saline water from Hurricane Hugo diffused itself into the soils of a forest on the coast of North Inlet, South Carolina. In shallow ground water samples, salt concentrations above normal have been found. With time, the inland salt concentration has decreased. Trees along the forest-marsh boundary have suffered from loss or browning of leaves.]
Gergely, Toth. European Commission - DG Joint Research Centre
Institute for Environment and Sustainability. 18 February 2009. 14 March 2009. <[[
]]>[Salinisation and salinity of coastal European lands is discussed here as well as sodification.
Arguments included are salinity as an environmental stress and limiting factor for agriculture and soil salinisation in coastal areas being affected by tsunami tidal waves. Visuals are included and information in credible and reliable for research purposes.]
Gragorich, L.J., et al. “Environmental Sustainability of Canada’s Agricultural Soils.” 4 November 2005. National Environmental Indicator Series Archives. 14 March 2009.
[According to this article, agriculture will improve when the risks of soil erosion and salinity are reduced. Prairie soils are especially important to protect from wind erosion. Some suggestions to lower this risk include land conservation tillage and changes in cropping systems. Visuals are shown as well as statistics of soil degradation risks in Canada.]
Greene, R.S.B., S.R. Cattle, and A.A. McPherson. “Role of Eolian Dust Deposits in Landscape Development and Soil Degredation in Southern Australia.”
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences,
56, (2009): 55-67.
Web. 10 Dec. 2011. [The properties and nature of “thin dust mantles” found across many parts of the Australian Landscape play a big role in environmental degredation processes like soil erosion and salinization. There are conflicting views regarding the properties, sources, and modes of transportation of eolian dust. Transpertation paths and rates for eolian dust are outlined.]
Hall, S.L., W.R. Wilder, and F.M. Fisher. “An Analysis of Shoreline Erosion Along the Northern Coast of East Galveston Bay, Texas.”
Journal of Coastal Research,
Web. 10 Dec. 2011. [Over a period of five years the erosion of the coastline of East Galveston Bay, Texas was measured. The erosion impacts of Hurricane Alicia weren’t as bad as expected. The erosional trend of this area is due to many different factors of which are both natural and caused by man.]
Halliday, Adam. "Khambhat Farmers Fight Salinity Ingress, Soil Erosion."
12 Mar. 2011. Web. 13 July 2011. <
>. [A news article discussing the predicament faced by local farmers in dealing with soil erosion. The erosion has caused a shift in prominent farming areas. Includes interviews with local scientist. Places blame on the man-made changes in the surrounding ecosystems.]
Harahsheh, Hussein, Ryutaro Tateishi, and Nikolai Kharin. "Assessment and Desertification Mapping Of The Drylands Of Asia."
Journal Of The Faculty Of Science. U.A.E. University,
12, (2002): 108-128.
. Web. 10 Dec. 2011. [It is recommended by the International Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD) to have a monitoring system created to control desertification. A desertification map of Aisa was compiled by the authors by making final decisions concerning the many different desertification maps from countries all around Asia. The degredation land types that were found were: wind erosion, soil salinization, water erosion, vegetation degredation, and rangeland waterlogging.]
Hua, Tsing. “Causes and drivers of desertification, soil erosion and salinization in China: a meta-analysis.” Journal of Natural Resources. 15 January 2004. 14 March 2009.
[This meta-analysis is based on a collection of 102 cases of desertification, 79 cases of soil erosion, and 64 cases of salinization. The casus of these events are also discussed. This would be a good article for researching cases of erosion and salinization and how it affects China’s ecosystem.]
Jensen, E. & McLellan, S. (2005).
Beach Closings: Science versus Public Perception.
. [This article discusses the potentially hazardous condition of the world’s oceans. Many people think that just because the water looks clean that it really is. In all actuality, the aesthetic conditions of the ocean have relatively nothing to do with its actual physical, chemical, and biological condition. Many more beaches are closing due to increased pollution, and other hazardous chemicals. The article goes on to talk about how we need better techniques to fight against pollution in the water. It is a great article and I agree with what it says.]
Jones, Tamsyn. “Why We Should all Worship the Ground We Walk On.” The Scoop on Dirt. XVII. 5(2006) : 26-39. E MAGAZINE. 14 March 2009. SIRS BYU–I
[This is a comical and passionate article about the importance of dirt. It discusses everything from the anatomy of healthy soils, to areas whose soil is in danger, and other threats to soil including those associated with farming. The information covered in this article is diverse and well researched.]
Kovda V.A. “Loss of Productive Land Due to Salinization.”
12.2, (1983): 91-93.
. Web. 10 Dec. 2011. [Due to salinization, hundreds of thousands of hectares of productive land are no longer usable. Causes of salinization are discussed, such as water storage irrigation. The article comes to the conclusion that salinization of productive land is hazardous people over wide geographic regions. Salinization occurs from poor use of land and water resources.]
Lal, Rattan. Soil degradation in the United States: extent, severity, and trends. Boca Raton, Florida: Lewis Publishers, 2004. Print. [This book tells how soil erosion is a threat to the environment and it should be monitored. It talks about the types of soil degradation and what is causing it. It is a good source and reference for those wanting to know more about soil degradation, or for scientists who need a book to refer back to.]
Lal, Rattan. "Myths and Facts About Soils and The Greenhouse Effect."
SSSA Special Publication,
57, (2001): 9-26.
. Web. 10 Dec. 2011. [Practices in agriculture that cause “emission of greenhouse gasses from soil” involve deforestation, abundant tillage, changing ecosystems from natural to agricultural, biomass burning, and fertilizers and manures used in an indiscriminate manor. GHG emission is severely increased by degredation of soil due to accelerated erosion, salinization, acidification, and reeducation in soil biodiversity.]
“Land Degradation.” The Global Change Program at the University of Michigan. University of Michigan. 28 February 2009 <
> . [This site gives an overview of status of soil degradation as well as the causes. It is a good introductory site when wanting to learn more about this topic.]
Martínez-Sánchez, M.J. et al. “Journal of Geochemical Exploration.”
109.1-3, (2011): 1-7. Web. 10 Dec. 2011. [This article is to further the study of the processes that land undergoes to become a desert in Mediterranean regions. Results of investigating the process that soil wear down in the Murcia Region in Spain are discussed. Problems with salinization—when nonsaline soil becomes saline—in the Murcia region are tested by two chemical degradation indicators, degradation state and rate. Results show that an increase in salinization processes is taking place.]
Matson, P.A., et al. (1997). "Agricultural Intensification and Ecosystem Properties".
, 227 (5325), 504-509.
> [The expansion and intensification of the agricultural land is beneficial, but also detrimental to ecosystems. Croplands are becoming more specialized and therefore reduce the biodiversity in an area for plants and animals. With reduced biodiversity you also reduce the microorganisms and invertabrates in the soil, which are essential for soil fertility. Agriculture also decreases soil organic matter, which decreases the nutrient cycling in soil. In order to achieve sustainable agriculture farmers and scientists need to work together to create a system of agriculture that integrates traditional practices with new, ecologically minded, innovations.]
Miller, Gerald. “Impact of Soil Erosion on Soil Productivity.” Iowa State University. 28 Jan 2001. Iowa State University Integrated Crop Management. 5 Nov. 2008 <
> . [This page contains a description of how topsoil contributes to the growth of crops and how erosion works. The site then discusses the impact of the loss of topsoil and how certain nutrients are lost with the topsoil. I believe the article is reliable. ]
Miranowski, John A., et al. “Effects of Rising Relative Energy Prices on Soil Erosion and Its Control”. American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 67. 3 (1985) : 558-562. Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association. 14 March 2009. JSTOR BYU–I libraryhttp:
wf2dnvr13.webfeat.org/ [This is a good resource for information on how energy prices affect soil conservation. According to this source, higher relative energy prices reduce soil erosion significantly. Other areas such as soil loss restriction policies and subsidies for soil erosion abatement are also discussed.]
Monitoring the White Death – Soil Salinity (2004). In Australian Academy of Science. Retrieved March 20, 2009, from
. [As the title sugessts, this article is mainly about monitoring the salinization of soils in different ways. Electromagnetic sensors, monitoring by “aeroplane”, and monitoring by satellite are discussed as ways to keep the problem of salty soil in control. The Academy also explains predicting and preventing the problem.]
Montgomery, David R. (2007). "Soil Erosion and Agricultural Sustainability".
, 104 (33), 13268-13272. <
> [In land that is not disturbed, that has vegetation, the natural erosion of the soil by wind and water is balanced with the production of soil so degradation fo the land does not occur. Conventionally plowed agricultural fields causethe erosion of the soil to go faster than the rate of production of the soil, which causes degradation of the land and decreased sustainability. No-till agriculture is much more sustainable because the rate of erosion is almost equal with the rate of production of the soil.]
Monty’s Plant Food Co. Inc. (2006). Salinization of soil. Retrieved 6/23/2008, from
[This website is from a company that sells plant food, but the article is purely informational. The information is short and to the point and discusses what salinization is, how it is created, and its effects on soil and on crops.]
Moore, D., and Singer, M. (1990). Crust Formation Effects on Soil Erosion Processes. In Soil Science Society of America Journal. Retrieved April 8, 2009, from
. [This article discusses the effects of soil crust types on erosion. It summarizes the effects of soil crusts at different stages of runoff. The article then discusses trends and uses photographs to support conclusions drawn from erosion data collected from their experiment. The trends of erosion were related to decreasing size of surface material available and the buildup of a layer of overland flow. This article would be useful for those concerned with erosion during irrigation processes.]
Mortlock. Dave Favis. Soil Erosion Site. 2007. 11 Nov. 2009. <
>. [Mortlock speaks of the effects of nuclear weapons on future soil erosion. He also states that it is difficult to find a lot of comprehensive information on erosion, but that to a large extent soil erosion doesn’t fit very nice under a specific heading.]
Mountains and Minds. 13 May 2009. Montana State University. 13 July 2009 <
>.[This article reviews the basics of salinity and sodicity effects on soil physical properties. The salinization of soil effects plant growth and the physical properties of the soil. ]
Oak, Manali. “10 Ways to Conserve Soil.” Buzzle 5 September 2008. 8 June 2009.
site explains that soil is a resource that is being conserved as it should. This is a useful site if you are searching for information regarding ways to conserve soil.
O'Keefe, Phil (1983). "The Causes, Consequences and Remedies of Soil Erosion in Kenya".
, 12 (6), 302-305. [Wood an dcoal burning are the primary fuel sources in Kenya, which leads to a lot of over-harvesting of wood. This causes the soil to be much more easily eroded, which leads to the degradation of the land in Kenya. Other environmental conditions causing erosion are hillslope gradient, and ground cover; the ground cover si heavily affected by the climate and grazing. Since the over-harvesting of trees ahs caused erosion fo the soil, the land is now much less fertile, and therfore less likely to produce more trees. The implementation of zero tillage agriculture on these soils will lead to increased production of woody biomass and increase the nutrient store for the tropical ecosystems.]
O’keefe, Phil. The Causes, Consequences and Remedies of Soil Erosion in Kenya. Ambio 12.6 (1983): 302-305. <
>. [Phil O’keefe explains that nature washes away some 9.3 billion tons of soil a year, but human intervention pushes that figure up to around 24 billlion tons/year. Kenya’s problems are aggravated by a semi-arid climate over much of its interior, the cutting of forests for fuelwood and charcoal-making, and poor land management and agricultural practices.]
Palm, Cheryl, et al. “Soils: A Contemporary Perspective.” Annual Reviow of Environment and Resources. 32 (2007): 99-129. [Cheryl Palm explains that soils are viewed in the context of ecosystems services is primarily determined by three core soil properties: texture, mineralogy, and soil organic matter. Ecosystem services can be related to specific soil processes. Soil degradation at present is not adequately assessed and quantified.]
Pankova, E. I., and A. F. Novikova. "Maps Of Soil Salinization In Russia."
Eurasian Soil Science,
35.7, (2002): 724-736.
. Web. 10 Dec. 2011. [One of the commonly used methods for the study of geographic and genetic regularities of soil salinization, is to map out the salt-affected soils. At Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute, the first maps of the Soviet Union were made. Currently a new set of maps in being created. The map includes deeply saline, saline, and potentially saline soils; solonetzes and solonetic soils; and the “chemistry of soil salinity” and the amount of “moderately and strongly saline soils in the soil cover.”]
Pickens, T. Boone. “Soil Erosion.” 22 August 2007. Dirt Home. 14 March 2009. <
>[This article discuses the salinization of soil due to the draining of evaporative coolers. Salinization eventually leads to soil erosion in these cases as vegetation stops growing in these salty areas which reduces ground cover. This is a useful site for gathering information on crops affecting soils.]
Pimentel, David, and Kounang, Nadia. Ecology of Soil Erosion in Ecosystems. Ecosystems 1.5 (1998): 416-426. <
>.[David Pimentel and Nadia Kounang explain that about 75 billion tons of soil are eroded from the world’s terrestrial ecosystems, and that most agricultural land in the world is losing from 13 to 40 tons of soil per year. Rain and wind energy are two prime causes of erosion from tilled or bare land.]
Pimentel, D., & Kounang, N. (1998). Ecology of Soil Erosion in Ecosystems. Ecosystems, 1(5), 416-426. [This research article discusses the renewal and loss of soil each year. It also discusses the main causes of erosion and why this is occurring. It discusses the erosion process and the negative effects that erosion has on the land.]
Rengasamy, Pichu (2006). "World Salinization with Emphasis on Australia".
Journal of Experimental Botany
, 57 (5), 1017-1023.
> [By 2025 the world food production will need to increase by 38% if the current food supply is to be maintained. The increasing degradation of soil by erosion and salinity in the worl will make that difficult. The goal should be to increase the productivity of land already in use rather than to cultivate mor land. Saline soil makes it difficult for plants to grow. In soil that has no salt plants are able to take up water until the soil has 5% water content. In soil that has a salinity that measures 0.64 dSm-1 the plants can only take up water until the soil has 14% water content.]
Roberts, Brian (1987). "Australian Land Degradation and Its Control".
, 16 (5), 272-276. [Theh primary ecological problem in Australia is soil erosion and degradation. Contributing factors in this problem are the natural susceptibility of the land to erosion because of droughts, which results in less grass cover. Other factors causing the degradation of the land are overgrazign, especially by kangaroos, logging, water erosion, and wind erosion. Solutions to the erosion of the Australian inland are: control of the kangaroo population, use fo the land within its capability, and the land-use decisions take into account the whole catchment/region.]
Salama, Ramsis B., et al. (1999). "Contributions of Groundwater Conditions to Soil and Water Salinization".
, 7 (1), 46-64.
> [Salinization is the process by which the concentration of dissolved salt in the water is increased. Salinization can occur through natural processes such as, evaporation, evapotranspiration, and hydrolysis, and through human induced processes. The salinity of the groundwater plays a key role in the slainization of soil and water. The groundwater flows in streams and is deposited in lakebeds. Depressions in the land can form saline lakes or playas.]
Salinizatioin: Monty’s Liquid Fertilizer Has Very Low Salt Index (2006). Monty’s Plant Food Company. Retrieved March 20, 2009, from
. [Although this company is advertising their fertilizer, they present important information about salinization. It claims that over-watering is a bigger factor in causing salt content to go up in soils than under-watering. The article also discusses why in some parts of the country salinization is not a problem.]
Scherr, Sara J.
Soil Degredation: A Threat To Developing-Country food security by 2020?
Washington DC: Intl Food Policy Res Inst, 1999. Print. [This book evaluates how food security will be impacted by soil degredation. The effects of soil degredation of the past and present are discussed. The effects of degredation of soil for the future are discussed as well at the threats of soil degredation on the food security of developing countries. For addressing these problems, the “international community” is setting boundaries, but they are based on incomplete information.]
soil. (n.d). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 15, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online:
[This encyclopedia article explains what soil erosion is and how soil erosion range from less than 0.02 to 10 metric tons per hectare per year. If soil loss is happening at a higher rate than 10 metric tons per hectare annually it is considered accelerated erosion.]
“Soil Erosion – Causes and Effects.” Ontario Ministry of Agriculture Food & Rural Affairs. 18 April 2008. Queen’s Printer for Ontario. 5 Nov. 2008 <
>. [This is an adequate source in researching the main causes of soil erosion. The source seems to be trustable as it is a national government. The site contains a large amount of information that could be useful in researching and correcting this problem.]
Rosenberg. Matt. About.com: Geography. 2009. 11 Nov. 2009. <
>. [Rosenberg states the process of erosion is rocks breaking up by weathering. He also says that many different elements such as water, wind, ice, and waves are agents to erosion. He then expounds on each of these elements and how their effects are causes of erosion.]
State of Connecticut. Department of Environmental Protection. 2002 Connecticut Guidelines for Soil Erosion and Sediment Control. 2002. 10 Nov 2009. <
>. [This web site is a little out dated, but talks about the Soil and erosion guidelines in Connecticut. These guidelines are to provide information to government agencies and the public about soil erosion and sediment control.]
Sundborg, A. and A. Rapp (1986). "Erosion and Sedimentation by Water: Problems and Prospects".
, 15 (4), 215-225. [Sedimentation and erosion are processes that happen naturally and that, over time, have shaped the physical features of the earth. Human activities can have a negative effect on the way sedimentation and erosion occur. Such human activities include the building of dams, channelization of rivers, dredging of stream beds, grazing, and logging. While these activities can have a negative effect if left unchecked, they can also be good things if correctly implemented.]
Taddese, Girma (2001). "Land Degradation: A Challenge to Ethiopia".
, 27 (6), 815-824.
> [Land degradation is a huge problem in Ethiopia. Bad farming techniques, deforestation, and an increasing population are all reasons for this major problem. Since the farmers in Ethiopia are using techniques that disturb the environment and use up the nutrients of the soil they are forced to move to different fields and cultivate more land. Farming education and proper land management that takes into account the whole ecosystem will be valuable for Ethiopia, because it will reduce land degradation.]
Toya, Hiroshi, et al. “Land and Vegetation Degradation by Soil Erosion and Salinization in the Western Australian Wheat Belt.” (1996).
Web. 1 Apr. 2011.
[This article addresses the momentous problem of soil erosion and sanitization in the agriculture of Australia. It talks about the relation between erosion and salinization and how they show similar starts. It is very scientific and offers many diagrams.]
Trimble, Stanley W., & Crosson, Pierre. (2000). LAND USE: U.S. Soil Erosion Rates--Myth and Reality. In Science/AAAS. Retrieved April 8, 2009, from
. [According to these authors, environmental problems cannot be solved until their true space and time dimensions are known. Unfortunately limitations on soil loss and wind erosion equations do not allow a perfect knowledge of soil erosion occurrences, let alone how the soil moves. Models are unacceptable as a science and as a basis for national policy; however, a system of monitoring soil erosion and sediment movement is critical. This article would be useful to conservationists who need to know the proper laws regarding erosion.]
United States. Department Of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service. National Soil
TutorVista.com. Soil Erosion. 2008. 11 Nov. 2009. <
>. [This web page talks about the precious resource of land that effects erosion. It explains that the erosion of soil results in a loss of fertility, while making the land barren. Desertification is a result of soil erosion. One of the main results of erosion is the removal of vegetation.]
Erosion Research Lab. March 2008. 10 Nov. 2009. <
>. [This web page takes you to one of the U.S. Government’s national research program in soil erosion. Their mission is to develop knowledge for land users on soil for future generations. Explains improved erosion prediction technology.]
USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (1998). Soil Quality Resource Concerns: Salinization. Retrieved March 18, 2009, from
. [This conservation service published this extremely useful article about the basics of salinization of water. An explanation of salinization is followed by its most common causes. Someone looking for the signs of salinization in soils will find this article very useful. Information is also given about how to manage this soil condition. This is a short article, but it is full of information.]
“Weathering, Erosion and Soils.” Geo.ua.edu. Introduction to Geology. n.d. Web. 8 July 2010.
[The site covers all the major facts and information concerning weather, erosion and soil. Discusses topics like “What factors control soil formation,” “What factors control the rate of weathering,” and “What causes soil degradation.” Has a text book type organization to it that allows you to read through it in a comprehensive manner and find certain topics very easily.]
Wehrfritz, George. (2006). A River in Reverse; Salt seeping up the Pearl River is threatening the delta :[Newsweek International Edition]. In Newsw
eek,0. Retrieved March 16, 2009, from Research Library database. (Document ID: 974996761). [Wehrfritz states that the latest contamination problem in Chinese Rivers is the salinization of the Pearl River. Several factors are contributing to the seeping of sea salt up river and into drinking water. Dam building, deforestation, and river-bed dredging for construction materials are all detrimental. He states the position of the Chinese government and what they plan to do.]
Williams, John, et al. (1991). "Sustaining Productive Pastures in the Tropics".
, 25, 73-84.
> [The grasslands of Australia are suffering due to heavy grazing pressure. A lot of grazign causes soil erosion and land degradation because the animals remove the vegetation which anchors the soil, which makes it more easily removed by wind and water. The major reason why areas are becoming overgrazed is because people do not look at the ecosystem as a whole. We need to look at the relationships betweeen plants, animals,vegetation, and soils in order to find a good system of grazing that won't degrade the land.]
Williams, JR., & Renard, KG, & Dyke PT. (1983). EPIC: A new method for assessing erosion's effect on soil productivity. In CSA Illumina. Retrieved April 8, 2009, from
. [EPIC, a mathematical model, recently developed to determine the relationship to soil erosion and soil productivity in the US. Their first goal was to use a realistic model using data readily available. The second goal was that the model had to be capable of simulating hundreds of years (because erosion is slow.) The third goal of the model is to effectively be used for a wide range of soils, climates, and crops in the US. The last goal is efficiency and convenience of use. This article is useful to those who predict erosion and soil productivity in the US.]
Wolkowski, Dick. "Soil erosion and productivity." Department of Soil Sciences UW-Madison. powerpoint. 1995. 19 Jun 2009. <
.>. [This powerpoint is well designed to tell you about soil erosion, water erosion, and wind erosion. It has pictures, tables, graphs, and diagrams to help you see and understand what they are talking about. It talks about the seriousness of the problem, productivity loss, and how to reduce erosion.]
Wu, Ronggui and H. Tiessen (2002). "Effect of Land Use on Soil Degradation in Alpine Grassland Soil, China".
Soil Science Society fo America Journal
, 66, 1648-1655. <
> [There is heavy cultivation and grazing in the grasslands fo China. Soil degradation was measured in different fields where the amount of grazing and cultivation was different. 137 Cs-radioactivity was used to estimate the amount of soil degradation in each area. In the areas where there had been more grazing and cultivation the 137 Cs-radioactivity levels were lower and the organic carbon content of the soil was significantly reduced. In heavily grazed and cultivated areas the cation exchange rate were much lower, which means the soil was much less fertile.]
Yi, Xiu, and Xia Li. "Soil Resources And Their Development And Protection In Northwest China."
Journal Of Earth Sciences And Environment,
26.4, (2004): 85-89.
. Web. 10 Dec. 2011. [This paper discusses how the different soil characteristics effect the development and use of numerous types of soil, based on the soil distribution of the Northwest region. Loose testure, high silt, and high calcium carbonate found in soils are the material bases of water and soil loss. The fundamental reasons for soil salinization and desertification come from bad compatibility of the use of water and soil resource, and desert soil resource.]
Zinck, J.A., et al. "Remote Sensing Of Land Degradation: Experiences From Latin America And The Caribbean."
Journal Of Environmental Quality,
39.1, (2010): 42-61.
. Web. 10 Dec. 2011. [Around 16% of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is affected by land degredation caused by overgrazing, deforestation, and “inappropriate irrigation practices.” The issues that this paper addresses are those related to the addition of “remote sensing technologies” in order to map out the land degredation in the LAC region. Remote sensing has been of value to mapping degredation by analyzing the research papers published between the 1980’s and 2009 dealing with wind and water erosion salinization and change in vegitation.]
Eckholm, Erik P. Losing Ground: Environmental Stress and World Food Prospects. New York: Norton, 1976. Print. [Eckholm discusses why erosion is so harmful, and narrates his idea, specifically a campaign to stop erosion by massive tree-planting campaigns. He actually bridges into world hunger and how planting trees to maintain ground can lead to solutions to hunger in the poorest nations.]
Garcia-Ruiz, Jose M. "The Effects of Land Uses on Soil Erosion in Spain: A Review." Academic Search Premier. EBSCO, 15 Mar. 2010. Web. 1 Apr. 2010. [This source gives an explanation in practical use regarding the erosion and salinization of soils that is occurring in Spain. Jose Garcia uses examples to show the effects of the land use and the many negative effects that they can cause.]
"Great Plains: Degradation of Soil Resources." International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD). Web. 05 Apr. 2010. <
>. [Another study done on erosion and it’s effects on the Great Plains region of the United States, this web page shows empirical data and analysis of the effects measured.]
"Land Degradation in China: Erosion and Salinity | Poverty Environment Net." Poverty Environment Net | Povertyenvironment.net. Web. 05 Apr. 2010. <
>.[ This web page links a study done by China that illustrates the massive amounts of erosion that is occurring in the various provinces of China. Various experts on the topic provide Data specific to the case, and analysis of the data.]
"Melton Shire Council - Erosion and Salinity." Melton Shire Council Home Page. Web. 05 Apr. 2010. <
>. [ wep page provides a brief, yet precise explanation of how erosion is affecting salinization levels in the area of Melton, Australia. It provides links to other web pages where more information about the area could be obtained.]
Moore, Stephanie J. "Geochemical Tracers to Evaluate Hydrogeologic Controls on River Salinization." Academic Search Premier. EBSCO, 01 May 2008. Web. 1 Apr. 2010. [This article discusses salinization to a more profound level and explores the effect of such on lakes and rivers. Moore shows the effects of salinization of the Rio Grande as a real problem, and generates possible solutions.]
"Salinization and Soil Erosion."Share PowerPoint Presentations and Documents. Web. 05 Apr. 2010. <
>. [A slide show that beautifully illustrates the root of the problem of erosion and salinization of soils, this link is a wonderful place to start if you want an introductory presentation to the topic. Definitions and descriptions of the issues are given.]
"Salinization Origins, Potential Preventive & Curative Solutions." CISEAU. Web. 05 Apr. 2010. <
>. [This web page uses a simple flow chart to show the progression of erosion and salinization of soils. Using simple solutions, the Center of information for agriculture and it’s uses discusses how to decrease chances of erosion, and how to prevent increased salinization of soils.]
"Soil Conservation." The Canadian Encyclopedia. Web. 05 Apr. 2010. <
>. [The Canadian Encyclopedia provides an in-depth analysis of Canadian soil erosion, and provides an excellent solution to the problem. Real-life examples are cited throughout the article, bringing the issue of erosion out of the light of theory, and into the light of actuality.]
"Soil Salinity." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 05 Apr. 2010. <
>. [This Wikipedia page shows how soil salinity is measured, and provides valuable insights into why soil erosion can affect the salinization of soils and rivers in such a major way. The article explains why increased salinization is such a serious issue.]
Troeh, Frederick R., J. Arthur Hobbs, Roy Luther Donahue, and Frederick R. Troeh. Soil and Water Conservation. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1991. Print [Troeh explains the most common ways that erosion can occur as well as gives possible solutions to many of the erosion issues. The most interesting aspect of the book, is a look at how to tell where erosion is most likely to occur]
Welcome to the United Nations: It's Your World. Web. 05 Apr. 2010. <
>. [United Nations analysis of the desert regions of Iran, Afghanistan, and India and the amounts of wind erosion that has taken place in those regions. Salinization of discussed, as these regions are labeled the most degraded by erosion in the study performed.]//
help on how to format text
Turn off "Getting Started"